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背景调查中的轻罪:基本指南

雇主和潜在雇员都需要了解轻罪背景调查、轻罪是否会出现以及对双方意味着什么。本指南将讨论轻罪背景调查所揭示的内容,并回答一些与之相关的最常见问题。

什么是轻罪?

让我们首先探讨轻罪的定义。在美国,轻罪被定义为轻微的不法行为,并且很常见。虽然轻罪的最高刑罚是监禁 12 个月,但处罚通常包括缓刑、罚款和社区服务。

轻罪算不算犯罪?是的,轻罪是一种犯罪,这就是为什么某些背景调查会导致定罪。换句话说,被判定犯有轻罪的候选人在被问及是否有任何刑事定罪时仍应回答“是”。

轻罪会出现在背景调查中吗?

雇主进行的背景调查是招聘过程中的标准,包括犯罪历史调查。这些背景调查基于候选人提供的信息,例如他们的社会安全号码。所有犯罪记录,包括重罪和轻罪,都会出现,但这确实取决于所进行的背景调查的类型和特定州的特定规则。让我们来看看一些不同类型的背景调查。

关于披露定罪的国家规则

首先,某些州确实有关于定罪披露的规定。如果您有轻罪记录,则可能会有与披露相关的有限期限。例如,某些州禁止在定罪后超过七年的情况下披露某些犯罪记录。这些状态是:

  • 加利福尼亚

  • 堪萨斯

  • 马萨诸塞州

  • 马里兰

  • 蒙大拿

  • 新罕布什尔

  • 纽约

  • 华盛顿

  • 新墨西哥 

犯罪背景调查

如果您被判犯有轻罪,除非州法律禁止,否则犯罪背景调查将揭露这些罪行。这些背景调查还揭示了未决的刑事案件、监禁历史,一些调查还可能揭示逮捕情况。

就业前背景调查

大多数就业前背景调查包括犯罪背景调查,以核实就业历史、教育和任何专业执照。作为就业前验证的一部分进行的轻罪背景调查还可能包括筛选候选人的驾驶记录和药物测试。但是,就业前背景调查可以揭示的内容是有限的,例如:

  • 如果工作薪酬低于 75,000 美元,则不会出现与专业执照相关的民事判决、政府制裁和纪律处分措施。

  • 如果一份工作的薪水超过 75,000 美元,即使已经过去了 7 年以上,上述信息也可以披露。

联邦调查局背景调查

在向联邦政府机构和为其工作的任何公司申请工作时,通常会使用 FBI 背景调查。它也可以用于地方和州政府层面的工作。此背景调查涵盖与执法部门的所有互动,包括停车罚单和交通违规行为。自然也会出现轻罪。这通常是获得政府安全许可的第一步。

轻罪常见问题解答

轻罪背景调查似乎令人生畏。但是,在工作申请中诚实是很重要的。虽然在技术上被认为是犯罪,但轻罪并不会自动取消您的就业资格。以下是我们收到的一些关于轻罪背景调查的常见问题:

轻罪会在您的记录中保留多长时间?

轻罪会消失吗?一般来说,没有。轻罪仍然是刑事定罪。但是,经过一段时间后,您可以向法院请愿,要求封存或删除您的轻罪。

我怎么知道我的记录是否有轻罪?

有几种方法可以获取您的犯罪记录副本。联系您的州局、州警察局或州公共安全办公室以获取您的记录。您可能需要提交指纹。

C 类轻罪是否会保留在您的记录中?

是的,大多数犯罪背景调查仍会发现C 类轻罪重要的是要注意阿拉巴马州、阿肯色州、伊利诺伊州、肯塔基州、密苏里州、宾夕法尼亚州、田纳西州和德克萨斯州是唯一使用此分类来处理轻罪的州。

但是,有些州在消除 C 类轻罪方面很宽容,例如德克萨斯州。

少年记录会出现在犯罪记录中吗?

如果您在少年时被定罪,轻罪会在您的记录中保留多长时间?在大多数情况下,少年记录可以在您年满 18 岁后被封存和/或删除。但是,您必须向您被定罪的少年法庭提出申请,因为此过程通常不是自动的。2 级背景调查仍会调出这些记录,但大多数犯罪背景调查将它们排除在外。

未决和被驳回的指控是否出现在犯罪记录中?

有时确实会出现未决指控,但肯塔基州等一些州禁止这种做法。被驳回的指控确实出现在一些背景调查中,但联邦指导方针禁止候选人因被驳回的指控而被拒绝工作。

结论

轻罪背景调查并不可怕,也不太可能自动取消您的考虑资格。作为一名潜在员工,诚实对待你的记录很重要。

What is a misdemeanor?

Let’s first explore the definition of a misdemeanor. In the U.S., a misdemeanor is defined as a minor wrongdoing and can be quite common. While the maximum penalty for misdemeanors is 12 months incarceration, punishments usually involve probation, monetary fines, and community service.

Does a misdemeanor count as a crime? Yes, a misdemeanor is a crime, and that’s why certain background checks will bring up a conviction. In other words, candidates who have been convicted of a misdemeanor should still answer “Yes” when asked whether they have any criminal convictions.

Do misdemeanors show up on a background check?

Background checks conducted by employers are standard in the hiring process and will include a criminal history check. These background checks are based on the information provided by candidates, such as their Social Security Number. All criminal records, including felonies and misdemeanors, will appear, but it does depend on the type of background check conducted and rules specific to certain states. Let’s take a look at some of the different types of background checks.

State rules on disclosure of convictions

First, certain states do have rules on conviction disclosures. If you have a misdemeanor record, there may be a limited period relating to disclosure. For example, certain states prohibit disclosure of certain criminal records if more than seven years have passed since the conviction. These states are:

  • California

  • Kansas

  • Massachusetts

  • Maryland

  • Montana

  • New Hampshire

  • New York

  • Washington

  • New Mexico 

Criminal background checks

If you are convicted of a misdemeanor, criminal background checks will reveal them unless prohibited by state law. These background checks also reveal pending criminal cases, history of incarceration, and some checks may also reveal arrests.

Pre-employment background checks

Most pre-employment background checks include a criminal background check to verify employment history, education, and any professional licenses. Misdemeanor background checks conducted as part of pre-employment verification could also include a screening of the candidate’s driving records and drug testing. However, there are limits on what pre-employment background checks can reveal, such as:

  • If a job pays less than $75,000, civil judgments, government sanctions, and disciplinary measures relating to professional licenses will not appear.

  • If a job pays more than $75,000, the above information can be revealed even if more than seven years have passed.

FBI background check

FBI background checks are typically used when applying for jobs with a Federal government agency and any company that works for them. It could also be used for jobs at the local and state government level. This background check covers all interactions with law enforcement, including parking tickets and traffic violations. Naturally, misdemeanors will also appear. This is often the first step to obtaining government security clearances.

Misdemeanor FAQs

Misdemeanor background checks can seem daunting. However, it’s important to be honest on a job application. While technically considered a crime, a misdemeanor doesn’t automatically disqualify you from employment. Here are a few common questions we’ve received regarding misdemeanor background checks:

How long does a misdemeanor stay on your record?

Do misdemeanors go away? Generally, no. A misdemeanor remains a criminal conviction. However, after time has passed, you may be able to petition the court to have your misdemeanor sealed or expunged.

How do I know if I have a misdemeanor on my record?

There are several ways to get a copy of your criminal record. Approach your state bureau, state police, or state public safety office to obtain your record. You may be required to submit fingerprints.

Does a Class C misdemeanor stay on your record?

Yes, most criminal background checks will still reveal class C misdemeanors. It’s important to note Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Texas are the only states to use this classification for misdemeanors.

However, some states are lenient when it comes to getting class C misdemeanors expunged, such as Texas.

Will juvenile records appear on a criminal record?

How long do misdemeanors stay on your record if you were convicted as a juvenile? In most cases, juvenile records can be sealed and/or expunged after you turn 18. However, you must petition the juvenile court where you were convicted, as this process generally is not automatic. Level 2 background checks will still bring up these records, but most criminal background checks exclude them.

Do pending and dismissed charges appear on criminal records?

Pending charges do sometimes appear, but some states like Kentucky prohibit this practice. Dismissed charges do appear in some background checks, but Federal guidelines prohibit candidates from being turned down for a job due to dismissed charges.

Conclusion

Misdemeanor background checks are nothing to be afraid of and are unlikely to automatically disqualify you from consideration. As a potential employee, it’s important to be honest about your record.


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