返回列表 发表时间:2022-02-21    浏览次数:307

背景调查的 6 个关键考虑因素

在审查背景调查过程时,您必须考虑一些关键事项。在实施或评估您的背景调查计划时,请务必考虑以下六项要求。

1. 知情同意

在加拿大接受检查之前,雇主必须事先征得候选人同意披露个人信息及其目的。

未经候选人充分、知情和自愿同意,不得发布有关个人的犯罪信息,例如来自加拿大皇家骑警 (RCMP) 的信息。加拿大公民自由协会建议同意表格足够详细,以便个人确切知道将进行什么样的检查以及为什么要进行检查。个人信息保护和电子文件法 (PIPEDA) 要求雇主只能出于他们同意的目的使用或披露人们的个人信息,如果该目的发生变化,则必须收集新的同意。类似于加拿大公民自由协会、PIPEDA 和加拿大标准协会的 个人信息保护示范法典  声明应告知个人收集、使用或披露个人数据的目的。候选人必须有足够的时间和空间来理解表格并提供真正的自愿同意。

2. 候选人披露

加拿大的雇主可以让候选人有机会宣布他们未获赦免的任何刑事定罪或罪行。这可以通过预先同意的表格来完成,然后根据需要在此过程中稍后使用指纹记录进行验证。一旦候选人披露任何刑事罪行,该信息将被确认为全国太保搜索的一部分。

3.职位的合适性 

在加拿大,雇主必须将背景调查与他们正在招聘的职位联系起来。所填补的职位需要什么样的搜索、检查和验证?例如,您可能希望为董事添加媒体检查和信用检查 - 或 - 专业参考 - 或会计师、法律或医疗专业人员的专业执照。

根据 PIPEDA,背景调查的目的和需要应在收集信息时或之前确定;那么该信息的收集必须仅限于支持该目的的信息。此外,雇主应考虑何时最好进行背景调查,一般来说,在招聘过程的后期进行背景调查通常被确定为最佳实践,例如在他们即将提出要约时,甚至在他们已经延长了有条件的就业机会。 

4. 争议程序

个人应该能够质疑信息的准确性和完整性,并对其进行适当的修改。如果组织拒绝更正其记录,个人可以要求其在文件中附上不同意声明;然后必须将此声明提供给有权访问该信息的任何其他组织。如果个人对组织对有争议信息的处理不满意,他们可以向加拿大隐私专员办公室提出投诉。专员必须对投诉进行调查,并在其结束时提出报告。然后,投诉人可以将报告提交给加拿大联邦法院要求就投诉的主题举行民事听证会。法院有权命令该组织纠正其做法,公布其将采取的纠正其做法的步骤,并裁定损害赔偿。

5. 数据隐私

雇主必须审查并遵守《 个人信息保护和电子文件法》  (PIPEDA)以及《隐私法》。

《隐私法》涵盖了公共部门(联邦政府)的个人信息处理实践。由于这涉及背景审查,未经个人同意,不得披露受政府机构控制的个人信息。

PIPEDA是加拿大的私营部门隐私法。它为私营部门组织如何为商业活动收集、使用和披露个人信息设定了基本规则。注意:虽然 PIPEDA 仅限于各省内的联邦工程、企业或企业(WFUB 包括银行、电信、运输和管道公司),但 PIPEDA 也适用于涉及跨省或国际数据或个人信息传输的任何商业活动。

雇主还需要注意,还有其他与背景审查相关的法律可能与隐私法没有直接关系,例如消费者报告和人权法。

6. 雇佣省

根据招聘的省份,还请考虑并咨询 MFIPPA、PIPA 以及必须遵守的任何省份特定的人权、自由法案、数据隐私或信用消费者报告法案。

一些省份已经制定了自己的立法,类似于 PIPEDA。不列颠哥伦比亚省和阿尔伯塔省都有自己的版本,称为 PIPA,魁北克省有一个版本,称为魁北克私营部门法案。其余省份和地区尚未颁布与 PIPEDA 类似的立法,因此隐私法属于 PIPEDA 对非省级监管组织的规则。当私营部门组织跨省或国界收集、使用或披露信息时,PIPEDA 也适用。

在美国进行背景调查与在加拿大进行背景调查的方式有一些相似之处,也有一些不同之处。如果您在实施背景筛查计划时牢记这些注意事项,它应该会让您走上正确的轨道,以实现合规和全面的流程。

1. Informed Consent

It is important that the employer seeks upfront candidate consent to disclosure of personal information and the purpose for it, prior to undergoing checks in Canada.

Criminal information, such as from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), is not allowed to be released  about an individual without the full, informed, and voluntary consent of the candidate. The Canadian Civil Liberties Association suggests that consent forms are detailed enough so that the individual knows exactly what kind of check will be run and why.  The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) mandates that an employer can use or disclose people’s personal information only for the purpose for which they gave consent, and if that purpose changes, a new consent must be collected. Similarly to the Canadian Civil Liberties Association, PIPEDA and the Canadian Standards Association’s Model Code for the Protection of Personal Information  state that the individual should be informed of the purposes for the collection, use or disclosure of personal data. The candidate must be given enough time and space to comprehend the forms and provide truly voluntary consent.

2. Candidate Disclosure

Employers in Canada may give candidates the opportunity to declare any criminal convictions or offenses for which they have not been granted a pardon. This can be done via an upfront consent form and then verified with fingerprint records later on in the process, as required.  Once the candidate discloses any criminal offenses, that information will be confirmed as a part of a nationwide CPIC search.

3. Appropriateness to the Position 

In Canada, an employer must relate the background check to the position for which they are hiring.  What kind of searches, checks and verifications are needed for the position being filled? For example, you might want to add media checks and credit checks with credit bureaus for directors – or – professional reference – or professional license for Accountants, Legal or Medical professionals.

Under PIPEDA, the purpose and need for a background check shall be identified at or before the time the information is collected; then the collection of that information must be limited to only that information which supports the purpose.  In addition, the employer should consider when it is best to conduct the background check, and generally speaking, it is often determined best practice to conduct a background check later in the hiring process such as when they are near making an offer or even after they have extended a conditional offer of employment. 

4. Dispute Process

An individual should be able to challenge the accuracy and completeness of the information and have it amended as appropriate. If the organization refuses to correct its records, the individual may require it to attach a statement of disagreement to the file; this statement then must be provided to any other organizations that have access to the information. In the event the individual is unsatisfied with the organization’s handling of the disputed information, they may file a complaint with the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. The Commissioner is required to investigate the complaint and to produce a report at its conclusion.  The complainant, with the report in hand, can then take the matter to the Federal Court of Canada to request a civil hearing with respect to the subject matter of the complaint. The Court has the power to order the organization to correct its practices, to publicize the steps it will take to correct its practices, and to award damages.

5. Data Privacy

Employers must review and comply with the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA), as well as the Privacy Act.

The Privacy Act covers the personal information-handling practices in the public sector (federal government).  As this relates to background screening, personal information under the control of a government institution may not be disclosed without the individual’s consent.

PIPEDA is Canada’s private sector privacy law.  It sets ground rules for how private sector organizations collect, use, and disclose personal information for commercial activities.  Note: Although PIPEDA is limited within provinces to only federal works, undertakings or businesses (WFUB’s include banks, telecommunications, transportation and pipeline companies), PIPEDA also applies to any commercial activity that involves inter-provincial or international data or personal information transfer.

Employers also need to take note that there are other laws related to background screening that may not be directly related to privacy laws, such as consumer reporting and human rights laws.

6. Province of Hire

Depending on province of hiring, please also consider and consult MFIPPA, PIPA and any province specific Human Rights, Freedom Acts, Data Privacy or Credit Consumer Reporting acts that must be adhered to.

Some provinces have enacted their own legislation which is similar to PIPEDA.  British Columbia and Alberta each has its own version called PIPA, and Quebec has a version called the Quebec Private Sector Act.  The remaining provinces and territories have not enacted legislation comparable to PIPEDA and therefore privacy laws fall to PIPEDA rules for non-provincially-regulated organizations.  PIPEDA also applies when collection, use, or disclosure of information by private-sector organizations crosses provincial or national borders.

There are a few similarities, as well as a few differences, in how to run background checks in the United States versus running background checks in Canada. If you keep these considerations in mind while implementing a background screening program, it should get you on the right track for a compliant and comprehensive process.

电子屏-02.png