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2022 年招聘需要了解的 11 条新背景筛选法

规范招聘过程的法律总是在不断变化,对于人力资源团队来说,及时了解最新的立法是很重要的。从禁盒法到大麻测试等等,这里有 11 项最近颁布的法律,它们可能会影响您来年及以后的背景筛选过程。继续阅读以了解您的招聘实践是否需要更新以保持合规性。 


目录

单击一个章节可直接滚动到该章节。


  • 联邦法律法规

  • 州和地方法律



通过我们对规范就业背景筛查的新立法的快速汇总来开始新的一年。了解这 11 项新的联邦、州和地方法律是否会影响您在 2022 年的招聘,并了解您需要了解哪些信息才能保持合规。 


规范招聘过程的法律总是在不断变化,对于人力资源团队来说,及时了解最新的立法是很重要的。从禁盒法到大麻测试等等,这里有 11 项最近颁布的法律,它们可能会影响您来年及以后的背景筛选过程。继续阅读以了解您的招聘实践是否需要更新以保持合规性。 


联邦法律法规

于 2021 年 12 月 20 日生效的 2019 年联邦公平竞争就业机会法案(Fair Chance Act)适用于联邦机构和拥有联邦合同的雇主,无论是民事还是国防。在提供有条件的工作机会之前,法律禁止向求职者询问犯罪记录。例外情况包括可以访问机密信息的工作;涉及执法或国家安全职责的工作;或雇主必须合法考虑犯罪记录的工作。 

州和地方法律

几个州和城市已经通过了影响药物筛选、公平招聘等的新规定。

大麻筛查

康涅狄格

自 2022 年 7 月 1 日起,雇主不得因雇用前吸食大麻 而对求职者 或现有雇员采取不利行动如果当前员工的大麻检测呈阳性,则只有在雇主制定书面药物检测政策、“合理怀疑”员工在工作中使用大麻或员工在工作中表现出损害迹象的情况下,才能采取不利行动。例外情况包括涉及驾驶或监督儿童的工作以及影响公共健康和安全的工作。 

弗吉尼亚

自 2021 年 7 月 1 日起,HB 1862 禁止雇主对合法使用大麻油的求职者或现任雇员采取不利行动。员工必须有从业者的书面证明,证明油被用于治疗诊断出的病症或疾病的症状。 

费城

自 2022 年 1 月 1 日起,费城雇主不能要求求职者通过就业前大麻测试例外情况包括执法工作、商业驾驶工作以及需要监督儿童或弱势个人的工作。目前的员工仍然可以接受大麻使用筛查。 

公平雇佣法

拥有公平机会招聘法的州和地方的名单正在增加。这是最新的变化。

路易斯安那州 

自 2021 年 8 月 1 日起,雇主在做出聘用决定时不得要求或考虑候选人的逮捕记录或无罪记录。只有在个人评估(根据平等就业机会委员会的建议)确定候选人的犯罪历史与工作职责直接相关时,雇主才能考虑候选人的犯罪历史。如果候选人书面要求,雇主还必须提供招聘过程中使用的任何背景筛选结果的副本。 

缅因州

自 2021 年 10 月 18 日起,雇主不得在初次工作申请时询问犯罪记录工作申请或广告不能说有犯罪历史的人不应该申请或不会被考虑。如果其他联邦或州法律要求进行犯罪背景筛查、取消有刑事定罪的候选人的资格或禁止雇主雇用有某些刑事定罪的人,则有例外。  

费城

自 2021 年 4 月 1 日起生效的费城公平犯罪记录筛查标准条例 (FCRSS)修正案扩大了该法律,以涵盖现有员工、独立承包商和零工。FCRSS 禁止在求职申请或面试中询问潜在雇员的犯罪背景。只有在提供有条件的工作机会后才能进行犯罪背景调查。 

纽约市

纽约市公平机会法案修正案自 2021 年 7 月 29 日起生效,要求雇主在提供有条件的就业机会之前进行所有非犯罪背景筛查。犯罪背景调查和机动车辆检查只能在有条件录取通知书发出后进行。目前,许多雇主等到提出要约后才进行所有筛选,但未来的最佳做法是将筛选分为两个阶段。 

志愿者背景调查

加利福尼亚

自 2022 年 1 月 1 日起,加利福尼亚州法律 AB 506要求青年服务组织的所有管理人员、雇员或常规志愿者进行背景调查,以识别和排除那些有虐待儿童历史的人。“常规志愿者”定义为 18 岁及以上,每月监督或与儿童直接接触超过 16 小时或每年 32 小时的人员。 

工资历史禁令

内华达州

自 2021 年 10 月 1 日起,内华达州的雇主不得要求求职者的工资或薪水历史记录用于决定聘用或薪酬。即使员工自愿分享该信息,雇主也无法考虑。 

更新出生日期修订政策

密歇根州

自 2022 年 1 月 1 日起,将从全州法院记录中删除出生日期 (DOB) 的规则已得到修订根据修订后的规则,自 2022 年 4 月 1 日起生效,个人(例如消费者报告机构员工)可以在征得候选人同意的情况下访问犯罪记录中的出生日期,以进行身份匹配。了解为什么 DOB 修订政策变得越来



Start the new year with our quick roundup of new legislation regulating employment background screenings. Find out whether these 11 new federal, state and local laws impact your hiring in 2022 and find out what you need to know to stay compliant. 


Laws regulating the hiring process are always in flux, and it’s important for HR teams to stay current on the latest legislation. From ban-the-box laws to marijuana testing and more, here are 11 recently enacted laws that may affect your background screening process in the coming year and beyond. Keep reading to see if your hiring practices need a refresh to stay in compliance. 

Federal Laws & Regulations

The federal Fair Chance to Compete for Jobs Act of 2019 (Fair Chance Act), which took effect December 20, 2021, applies to federal agencies and to employers with federal contracts, whether civilian or defense. The law prohibits asking candidates for employment about criminal history until a conditional job offer is made. Exceptions include jobs with access to classified information; jobs involving law enforcement or national security duties; or jobs where employers must legally consider criminal history. 

State & Local Laws

Several states and cities have passed new regulations affecting drug screening, fair hiring, and more.

MARIJUANA SCREENING

CONNECTICUT

As of July 1, 2022, employers cannot take adverse action against job candidates or current employees based on pre-hire marijuana use. If current employees test positive for marijuana, adverse action can be taken only if employers have a written drug testing policy in place, there was “reasonable suspicion” the employee used cannabis on the job, or the employee showed signs of impairment at work. Exceptions include jobs involving driving or supervising children and jobs affecting public health and safety. 

VIRGINIA

Effective July 1, 2021, HB 1862 forbids employers from taking adverse action against a job candidate or current employee for lawfully using cannabis oil. Employees must have written certification from a practitioner that the oil is being used to treat symptoms of a diagnosed condition or disease. 

PHILADELPHIA

As of January 1, 2022, Philadelphia employers can’t require job candidates to go through pre-employment marijuana testing. Exceptions include law enforcement jobs, commercial driving jobs, and jobs requiring supervision of children or vulnerable individuals. Current employees can still be screened for marijuana use. 

FAIR HIRING LAWS

The list of states and localities with fair chance hiring laws is growing. Here are the latest changes.

LOUISIANA 

As of August 1, 2021, employers cannot request or consider a candidate’s arrest record or non-convictions when making hiring decisions. Employers can consider a candidate’s criminal history only if an individual assessment (as recommended by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) determines that the history directly relates to the job duties. Employers must also provide a copy of any background screening results used in the hiring process if the candidate requests it in writing. 

MAINE

Effective October 18, 2021, employers cannot ask about criminal history on initial job applications. Job applications or advertisements cannot say that people with criminal histories shouldn’t apply or won’t be considered. There are exceptions if other federal or state laws require criminal background screenings, disqualify candidates with criminal convictions, or prohibit employers from hiring people with certain criminal convictions.  

PHILADELPHIA

An amendment to Philadelphia’s Fair Criminal Record Screening Standards ordinance (FCRSS), effective as of April 1, 2021, expands this law to cover current employees, independent contractors, and gig workers. FCRSS prohibits asking potential hires about their criminal background on job applications or during interviews. Criminal background checks can take place only after a conditional job offer is made. 

NEW YORK CITY

Amendments to the New York City Fair Chance Act, effective July 29, 2021, require employers to conduct all non-criminal background screenings before making a conditional offer of employment. Criminal background checks and motor vehicles checks can only be performed after the conditional offer is made. Many employers currently wait until after making an offer to conduct all screenings, but best practice going forward is to split screenings into two stages. 

VOLUNTEER BACKGROUND SCREENING

CALIFORNIA

As of January 1, 2022, California law AB 506 requires all administrators, employees, or regular volunteers of youth service organizations to undergo a background check to identify and exclude those with a history of child abuse. “Regular volunteers” are defined as those aged 18 and older who supervise or have direct contact with children for more than 16 hours per month or 32 hours per year. 

SALARY HISTORY BANS

NEVADA

Effective October 1, 2021, Nevada employers cannot request job candidates’ wage or salary history for use in making decisions about hiring or pay. Even if the employee shares that information voluntarily, employers cannot consider it. 

UPDATE ON DATE OF BIRTH REDACTION POLICIES

MICHIGAN

A rule that would have redacted dates of birth (DOBs) from court records statewide as of January 1, 2022, has been amended. Under the revised rule, effective April 1, 2022, individuals (such as consumer reporting agency employees) may access birth dates on criminal records for identity matching purposes with the candidate’s consent. Learn why DOB redaction policies are becoming more common and what it means for the background screening process.


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