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新的《公平机会法》修正案意味着对纽约市雇主进行两阶段背景调查

扩大对有犯罪历史的求职者的保护

2021 年第 4 号纽约市人权地方法修订了《纽约市公平机会法案》,为有犯罪记录的求职者提供新的保护。根据执行 FCA 的纽约市人权委员会 (NYCHRC) 发布的 新指南,犯罪背景调查现在必须是招聘过程的最后一步。

根据新指南,雇主必须进行所有非犯罪背景筛查,例如就业验证、教育验证、药物测试、参考调查以及信用报告或破产调查等民事检查,然后才能提供有条件的就业机会。 

一旦您根据非犯罪背景调查中的信息提出有条件录取通知书,您可以询问此人的犯罪历史并获得他们进行犯罪背景调查的许可。由于机动车辆记录检查可能包括刑事犯罪,例如酒后驾驶,因此也必须推迟到提出有条件要约之后。 

与许多州现有的禁柜法类似,纽约市的 FCA 已经要求将犯罪背景调查推迟到有条件的就业机会之后。为了简化背景调查过程,许多雇主在提出有条件录取通知书之前不会进行任何背景调查。现在,纽约市雇主的最佳做法是使用两阶段的背景筛选流程。

观看这个简短的视频以获得简要概述。

新法律如何影响背景审查过程

第三方消费者报告机构 (CRA) 进行背景调查的雇主通常会在一份报告中收到所有背景调查结果,包括犯罪背景调查和机动车辆调查。对于受新指南影响的雇主,现在最好分两个阶段进行背景调查: 

  1. 首先进行非犯罪检查(例如不透露犯罪记录的就业和教育验证检查)

  2. 在延长有条件的报价后,接下来进行犯罪记录检查(例如国家、联邦、州和县的刑事搜查,以及机动车辆记录检查)

NYCHRC 指出,分两个阶段获取背景调查数据有助于保护雇主免受歧视的责任。如果您在招聘过程的第一阶段(在您了解他们的犯罪记录之前)取消了有犯罪记录的候选人的资格,您可以证明该决定不是基于犯罪记录。

谁受新法影响?

如果您在过去一年内雇佣了四名或更多人(包括您自己、带薪或无薪实习生,以及任何全职、兼职或临时工),并且其中至少一名员工在纽约市工作,则适用法律到您的业务。这四名员工不必在同一地点工作,只要其中一名在纽约市工作即可。 

法律有一些例外。如果现有的州或联邦法律禁止有犯罪记录的人从事特定职业,则该法律将取代纽约市法律。但是,如果现行法律允许雇主在评估犯罪记录时使用其酌处权,则雇主必须遵守纽约市法律。 

如何在犯罪背景调查后撤销有条件要约

在收到犯罪背景调查或机动车报告的结果并根据纽约市的公平机会程序评估候选人后,您可以决定撤销有条件的工作机会。根据犯罪记录信息,或者在机动车报告的情况下,可以根据驾驶记录中包含的犯罪或非犯罪信息撤回有条件的报价。

如果撤回有条件的报价,请务必遵循公平信用报告法 (FCRA) 要求的两步通知流程。向候选人发送不利行动前通知,其中包括背景调查结果的书面副本和公平机会分析的书面副本,并让他们有时间回应您的疑虑。 

此前,纽约市的 FCA 要求雇主在发出不利行动前通知后至少保留三个工作日的职位空缺。新指南将等待期延长至五个工作日。 

If your business is based in New York City or you have employees who work there, amendments to the New York City Fair Chance Act (FCA) that took effect July 29, 2021, may affect how you conduct background screenings for job candidates. Failure to comply with the new guidance could expose your business to liability. 

In this blog, we’ll explain how the FCA has been amended, whether your business is affected, and what to do to stay compliant when running background checks. 


Expanding Protections for Job Candidates With Criminal Histories

The New York City Human Rights Local Law 4 of 2021 amended the New York City Fair Chance Act to provide new protections for job candidates with criminal records. Under new guidance issued by the New York City Human Rights Commission (NYCHRC), which enforces the FCA, criminal background checks must now be the very last step in the hiring process. 

According to the new guidance, employers must conduct all non-criminal background screenings, such as employment verification, education verification, drug testing, reference checks, and civil checks such as credit reports or bankruptcy searches, before making a conditional offer of employment. 

Once you’ve made a conditional offer based on information in non-criminal background checks, you can ask about the person’s criminal history and get their permission to conduct a criminal background check. Because motor vehicle records checks may include criminal offenses, such as driving under the influence, they must also be delayed until after a conditional offer is made. 

Similar to existing ban-the-box laws in many states, New York City’s FCA already required delaying criminal background checks until after a conditional offer of employment. To simplify the background check process, many employers do not conduct any background checks until after they make a conditional offer. Now, best practice for employers in New York City will be to use a two-stage background screening process.

Watch this short video for a brief overview.

Who Is Affected by the New Law?

If you employed four or more people within the past year (including yourself, paid or unpaid interns, and any full-time, part-time or temporary workers), and at least one of those employees work in New York City, the law applies to your business. The four employees don’t have to work in the same location, as long as one of them works in New York City. 

There are some exceptions to the law. If an existing state or federal law prohibits people with criminal records from working in a particular occupation, that law supersedes the New York City law. However, if the existing law allows the employer to use their discretion when evaluating criminal records, the employer must follow the New York City law. 

How to Rescind a Conditional Offer After a Criminal Background Check

After receiving the results of a criminal background check or motor vehicle report and assessing the candidate in accordance with New York City’s Fair Chance Process, you may decide to rescind the conditional job offer. Conditional offers may be withdrawn based on criminal record information, or, in the case of a motor vehicle report, either criminal or non-criminal information included in the driving record.

If withdrawing a conditional offer, be sure to follow the two-step notification process required under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA). Send the candidate a pre-adverse action notice that includes a written copy of the background check results and a written copy of your Fair Chance Analysis, and give them time to respond to your concerns. 

Previously, New York City’s FCA required employers to keep a job open for at least three business days after sending the pre-adverse action notice. The new guidance extends that waiting period to five business days. 

GoodHire simplifies the pre-adverse action process by automatically sending candidates a copy of their background check results and providing interactive tools candidates can use to respond to employer concerns or dispute inaccurate information. Since waiting periods vary based on local regulations, the correct waiting periods between each step is built-in to the workflow based on your and your candidate’s locations, and GoodHire will alert you when you’re legally allowed to perform the next step. 

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