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拒绝一刀切 了解不同类型的犯罪背景调查

罪历史搜索是背景筛查的核心,在大多数雇主中广泛使用。根据2020 年专业背景筛查协会 (PBSA) 的调查,93% 的受访雇主表示,他们在犯罪背景筛查中纳入了国家犯罪数据库搜索。85% 的人表示他们使用某种形式的州、县或地方搜索部分或全部员工。

正如调查所强调的,有许多可用的犯罪背景调查选项。在为您的组织进行选择之前,您需要了解各种类型以及它们之间的区别。

犯罪背景调查的类型

与某些人可能认为的相反,没有单一的数据库或公共记录搜索能够提供候选人犯罪历史的全貌。因此,最好制定一个全面的背景筛查计划,并利用各种适合您需求的犯罪记录搜索和来源。

搜索参数或位置(联邦、州、县等)并不是众多犯罪背景调查类型的唯一区别。搜索还因所涵盖的违规类型和完成搜索所需的时间而异。以下是您可以通过背景调查进行的犯罪记录和法庭搜查的类型,以及它们之间的重要区别。

县法院记录搜索

县法院搜查至少在过去七年中查找县级的定罪或未决刑事案件的记录。在许多方面,县法院搜索构成了犯罪背景调查的支柱,因为它们涵盖了候选人居住县的犯罪行为,并且可以扩大到检查候选人之前的居住县。县法院搜索也可以与许多其他搜索相结合,例如,对具有多州地址历史的候选人进行州搜索。

联邦法院记录搜索

此搜索在美国联邦地方法院文件中寻找重罪和轻罪记录,包括公开逮捕令、指控、认罪、处置和判决。联邦法院搜查并非包罗万象,因为它们只包含与违反联邦法律有关的刑事案件,而不是违反州法律(记录在县法院)的刑事案件。由于候选人可能拥有法院和联邦刑事法院记录,因此将县法院搜索与联邦法院记录搜索结合起来通常是有意义的。

联邦法院系统很广泛,有 94 个独立的联邦法院区,因此您还需要确定搜索的参数。您可以选择根据候选人的地址历史搜索单个地区,或搜索所有 94 个地区。请记住,搜索所有 94 个地区可能会提供更完整的结果,但也可能会增加周转时间。

犯罪扫描状态数据库搜索

犯罪扫描州数据库搜索是 Corporate Screening 自己的州数据库软件,可以提供有关候选人家庭或工作州以外的定罪的见解。此搜索提供了超出单个或多个县法院记录搜索的额外覆盖范围,它可以帮助您发现一个或多个州违反州法律的任何潜在犯罪记录。

犯罪扫描性犯罪者搜索

CrimeSweep 性犯罪者搜索检查了从所有 50 个州和哥伦比亚特区的登记处以及几个部落土地登记处编制的数据库。这种搜索对于与弱势群体(包括儿童、老人和生病的人)一起工作的员工来说至关重要。当您想在候选人居住地以外的地区(例如,他或她工作或上学的地方)搜索性犯罪者定罪时,这也是有益的。

犯罪扫描全国搜索

CrimeSweep 全国搜索会检查县、州和联邦实体的一系列数据库,以及监禁和执法记录。此搜索会增加您发现犯罪记录的机会,因为它会检查县和联邦法院系统之外的犯罪记录来源。

指纹搜索

指纹识别将候选指纹与犯罪指纹数据库进行交叉检查,但与其他检查一样,它并不是包罗万象的。保存全国指纹数据的存储库不是最新的 1oo%,并且可能不会包含与个人相关的所有刑事案件。指纹识别方法的主要类型包括电子指纹识别和指纹犯罪记录研究,可以满足您对预算、周转时间和自动化的需求。

在某些情况下,联邦或州要求规定何时必须对某些职位的个人(例如卡车司机和执法人员)进行指纹识别。其他需要就业前指纹识别的职位包括那些与病人、老人或儿童一起工作的职位。在没有法律要求的情况下,指纹识别仍然对您的组织有意义,因为它可以发现在县、州或联邦法院搜查中可能不会显示的逮捕或其他过去的指纹活动。

物理法庭搜索 

实体法庭搜查本身不是一种犯罪背景调查。相反,它是一种进行或验证法庭搜查数据的方法。由于实体法庭搜索有助于验证犯罪记录数据库搜索中的犯罪记录“命中”,因此它是犯罪背景调查工具包中的重要资源。


2020 Professional Background Screening Association (PBSA) survey, 93 percent of surveyed employers said they include national criminal database searches in their criminal background screening. Eighty-five percent said they used some form of state, county, or local searches for some or all employees.

As the survey highlighted, there are many available criminal background check options. Before you make a selection for your organization, you need to understand the various types and how they differ.

Types of Criminal Background Checks

Contrary to what some may believe, there is no single database or public records search capable of providing the full picture of a candidate’s criminal history. Therefore, it’s best to develop a comprehensive background screening program and draw upon a variety of criminal records searches and sources suited to meet your needs.

The search parameter or location (federal, state, county, and so forth) is not the only differentiator among the many types of criminal background checks. Searches also vary by the type of violation they cover and the time it takes to complete them. Here are the types of criminal records and court searches you can conduct with a background check, and the important differences between them.

County court records search

County court searches look for records of convictions or pending criminal cases at the county level, from at least the past seven years. In many ways, county court searches form the backbone of criminal background checks, because they cover criminal actions in the candidate’s county of residence and can expand to check a candidate’s prior county or counties of residence. County court searches can also be combined with many other searches, for example, a state search for candidates with multi-state address histories.

Federal court records search

This search seeks felony and misdemeanor records within U.S. federal district court files, including open arrest warrants, charges, pleas, dispositions, and sentences. Federal court searches are not a catch-all, because they only contain criminal cases related to violations of federal law, not violations of state laws (which are recorded in county courts). Since a candidate could possibly have court and federal criminal court records, it often makes sense to combine a county court search with a federal court records search.

The federal court system is broad, with 94 separate federal court districts, so you’ll also need to decide the parameters of your search. You can choose to search a single district based on a candidate’s address history, or search all 94 districts. Keep in mind that searching all 94 districts may provide a more complete result, but it will also likely increase the turnaround time.

CrimeSweep state database search

A CrimeSweep state database search, which is Corporate Screening’s own state database software, can provide insights about convictions outside of a candidate’s home or work state. This search provides additional coverage beyond a single or multi-county court records search, and it helps you uncover any potential criminal records for state law violations across one or more states.

CrimeSweep sex offender search

The CrimeSweep sex offender search checks a database compiled from registries in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, as well as several tribal land registries. This search is essential for hires working with vulnerable populations, including children, the elderly, and those who are ill. It is also beneficial when you want to search for sex offender convictions in areas other than where the candidate lives, for example, where he or she worked or went to school.

CrimeSweep national search

A CrimeSweep national search checks a range of databases for county, state, and federal entities, as well as incarceration and law enforcement records. This search increases your chances of uncovering criminal records, because it checks criminal records sources outside of the county and federal court systems.

Fingerprint search

Fingerprinting cross-checks candidate fingerprints against a database of criminal fingerprints, but like other checks, it is not all-inclusive. The repositories housing nationwide fingerprint data are not 1oo percent up-to-date and may not contain every criminal case associated with a person. The main types of fingerprinting methods include electronic fingerprinting and fingerprint criminal record research, which can fit your needs for budget, turnaround time, and automation.

In some cases, federal or state requirements dictate when individuals in certain positions must be fingerprinted, such as truck drivers and law enforcement officers. Other positions requiring pre-employment fingerprinting include those involving work with the ill, elderly, or children. Absent a legal requirement, fingerprinting can still make sense for your organization because it can turn up arrests or other past fingerprint activity that may not be revealed in a county, state, or federal court search.

Physical court search 

A physical court search is not a type of criminal background check, per se. Rather, it is a method of conducting or verifying court search data. Because a physical court search helps to verify criminal record “hits” from a criminal records database search, it is an essential resource in your criminal background check toolkit.



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