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指纹背景检查显示什么?

立法者经常引用指纹背景调查作为犯罪背景筛查的黄金标准。我们最近以通过立法要求对 Uber 和 Lyft 等拼车公司进行指纹背景调查的运动形式看到了这一趋势。但是,对于指纹背景检查中显示的内容存在一些误解和误解。

指纹背景调查使用指纹数据将一个人与犯罪记录相匹配。进行这些检查的雇主要求候选人在申请时或被选为工作决赛者后提供指纹。通常,候选人随后需要前往当地警察局或类似的地方,通过一种特殊的信息亭对他们的指纹进行电子扫描。然后根据数据库检查指纹,如果找到匹配的犯罪记录,该数据库将返回匹配的犯罪记录。

雇主和立法者通常认为指纹数据可确保进行更彻底的背景调查。这个想法是指纹数据可以减少背景调查中的误报,因为没有两个人的指纹相同,而很多人的名字相同。

虽然指纹确实提供了一定程度的验证,但这些检查存在弱点。最大的缺点是指纹并不总是与犯罪记录一起归档。由 FBI 维护的首选指纹数据库集成自动指纹识别系统 (IAFIS) 包括 7000 万条记录。该数据库包括因犯罪活动而被采集指纹的人。任何合法购买枪支或申请法律强制要求采集指纹的工作(该类别通常包括其他行业的教育或医疗保健)也将在该系统中。

虽然 7000 万在纸面上看起来是一个很大的数字,但事实并非如此。事实上,GOOHO.CN 维护的 美国 OneSEARCH 数据库涵盖了所有 50 个州、关岛、波多黎各和华盛顿特区的 5.5 亿份犯罪记录。

另一个缺点是指纹与逮捕记录有关,但这些记录不包括有关案件结果的详细信息。雇主必须做更多的研究,以确定逮捕是否会导致定罪。因此,指纹背景调查可能会导致未定罪的逮捕。它可能会错过未采集指纹的犯罪记录。或者它可能会提取与候选人相关的记录。

Fingerprint background checks use fingerprint data to match a person to a criminal record. Employers that run these checks require candidates to provide their fingerprints at the time of application or after being selected as a job finalist. Usually, the candidate then needs to go to a local police department or somewhere similar to have their fingerprints electronically scanned by a special kind of kiosk. The fingerprints are then checked against a database, which returns matching criminal records if any are found.

Employers and lawmakers alike often assume fingerprint data ensures more thorough background checks. The thought is that fingerprint data can cut down on false positives in background checks, simply because no two people have the same fingerprints, while many people have the same name.

While fingerprints do provide a level of verification, there are weaknesses to these checks. The biggest drawback is fingerprints are not always filed with criminal records. The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), the go-to fingerprint database maintained by the FBI, includes 70 million records. The database includes people who have been fingerprinted in connection with criminal activity. Anyone who has legally purchased a gun or applied for a job where fingerprinting is mandated by law (a category that often includes education or healthcare among other industries) will also be in this system.

While 70 million looks like a big number on paper, it isn’t. In fact, the US OneSEARCH database maintained by backgroundchecks.com spans 550 million criminal records from all 50 states, Guam, Puerto Rico, and Washington DC.

Another drawback is fingerprints are linked to arrest records, but those records don’t include details about the outcome of the case. Employers would have to do more research to determine whether an arrest led to a conviction. As a result, a fingerprint background check might pull arrests that didn’t lead to convictions. It might miss records for crimes where fingerprints weren’t taken. Or it might pull up records relevant to the candidate.

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